Please wait...
Please wait...
Organisation Phone Street address City Email & WWW
1 Preparation
∆ "Apx0 Legends, Contents, etc;

2 Writing
The Full Name (TFN)
Do this if using term more than 5 times

90i Instruments
180821tnPN Wika
Typically PI should not operate continuously > 75% of full range.
Can handle occasional, short term overpressure of 30%

120L Piping Design
DN__= metric pipe sizes. (__NPS= imperial pipe sizes). ^ 8L6.0 Pipeline Supplies flip chart MU+.pdf

^ 8L4C PSA American Standards.pdf
^ 8L6.0 Pipeline Supplies flip chart MU+
^ 8L6.2 Flange dimensions Tyco FCT_7_06 MU

^ The Piping Guide
p21 In lines closures (spades and spectacle blinds, DBB)
p53 Drafting symbols

rp48 tP-1 Pipe dimensions and spans
rp54 cP-2 Personnel clearances (and access)
rp55 tS-1 Pipe spans
rp56 cS-2 Spans with rise or fall
rp76 tA1-M Arranging pipes in pipeways, fitting dimensions, etc

===== Lc Chemical piping
^ L~Iwaka Dairy chem bund MDM floor installation and L~Iwaka Dairy chem bund MXM wall installation
120LÏ€ Brackets
∆ Apx2 s120Lπ Brackets

125L Pipe stressing (spans)
ref 8Ls pipe spans.pdf

∆ s120 L above "The piping Guide"

=== Fonterra; FES p476 s100.8.2 Support centres
DN: . 15 __ 20 __ 25__ 32__ 40__ 50__ 65 __ 80__ 100_ 150__ 200 _ 250 _ 300 _ 350 _ 400 _ 450 and larger as approved by the Fonterra Engineer
s40: . 2.0 _ 2.0 _ 2.5 _ 2.5 _ 3.0 _ 3.5 _ 4.0 __ 4.5 __ 6.0 _ 6.0 _ 7.0 __ 8.0 __ 8.0 _ 9.0 _ 10.0
tube:. 2.0 _ 2.0 _ 2.5 _ 2.5 _ 2.5 _ 3.0 _ 3.0 __ 3.0 __ 3.5 _ 4.0 _ 4.0 __ 5.0 __ 5.0 _ 6.0 _ 7.0
PVC; 1.0 _ 1.0 _ 1.0 _ 1.0 _ 1.5 _ 1.5 _ 1.5 __ 2.0 __ 2.0 _ 2.5 _ 3.0 __ 3.0 __ 3.5 _

126.2L Connectors
Camlock washers; Viton, Nitrile, EPDM

126.2L Pipe Threads
===== ^ 8L Swagelok MS-01-140-1996} Threads MU
- R= BSP tapered male or female... BS21, ISO 7/1, DIN 2999, JIS B0203
- G= BSP parallel male or female... BS 2779, ISO 228/1, DIN ISO 228/1, JIS 0202
- Std; Male= tapered, Female= parallel
# Parallel to parallel threads typically require sealing washers (they do not seal on the thread).
Thread Sealants: S ApxLa8S01 Pipe Spec.docx aL6.6

- ASME B1.20.1 Pipe Threads, General Purpose, Inch (NPT)

===== ^ 8L6.6 Eng Toolbox BSP ISO 7-1.pdf. ^ 8L6.6 Eng Toolbox NPT- ANSI B1.20.1.pdf

DN . . . 6 . . . . . 8 . . . . . 10 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 25
NPS . 1/8” . . . ¼” . . . . . 3/8” . . . ½” . . . . . ¾” . . . 1”
BSP; TPI (mm pitch)
. . 28 (0.91) . 19 (1.34) . 19 . . . 14 (1.81) . 14 . . 11 (2.31)
NPT; “
. . 27 (0.94) . 18 (1.41) . 18 . . . 14 (1.81) . 14 . . 11.5 (2.21)

130M Balancing
The two primary factors to determine permissible unbalance (also called the balancing tolerance) are the mass of the rotating part and the maximum operational speed.
ISO 1940 is obsolete and has been replaced with ISO 21940-11, edition 2016-11-15. The EasyBalance software Tolerance Calculator has been updated to this new ISO standard.

Vibration velocity in mm/s

G 6.3 6.3 Fly-wheels
Aircraft gas turbine rotors
Electrical armatures
Process plant machinery
Pump impellers
Aircraft gas turbines
Centrifuges (separators, decanters)
Electric motors and generators (of at least 80 mm shaft height),
of maximum rated speeds up to 950 r/min
Electric motors of shaft heights smaller than 80 mm
Machinery, general
Machine tools
Paper machines
Process plant machines
Turbo chargers
Water turbines

G 2.5 2.5
Machine-tool drives
Computer drives
Turbo compressors
Small electric armatures
Electric motors and generators (of at least 80 mm shaft height), of maximum rated speeds above 950 r/min
Gas turbines and steam turbines
Machine-tool drives
Textile machines
Turbine-driven pumps

G 1 1
Grinding machine drives
Audio and Video drives
Textile bobbins
Automotive turbochargers

G 0.4 0.4
Spindles and drives of high-precision applications

Here's the actual formula:
U= G X 9549 X W/RPM

U= Allowable unbalance (in gram millimeters)
G= The "G" value you want to use, in this case 2.5
9549= the constant
W= weight of toolholder assembly
130Mf Fasteners
Check bolt science for lock nut arrangement, flanges

Bolt Science+44 1257 411503 Bolt Science Limited
Victoria House
16 Rotherwick Avenue
   NW, UK
150o Corrosion Orgs

150o Corrosion in water systems
^ 8o EPA Corrosion Manual for Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems 10003FIW

150o Equivalent steel grades
" Steel Number: European Steel and Alloy Grades " is free searchable database of engineering materials designed by scientists of the National Technical University KhPI. (Ukraine)

Equivalent steel grades
150o Material Property database
150o Paint
===== International PA10- Red Oxide, low sheen
A single pack anticorrosive vinyl etch primer. Suitable for use as an anticorrosive primer for application to Steel and Aluminium surfaces above the waterline. Also as a concrete floor finish; and as a primer for non ferrous metals

Apply on a dry and clean surface with a temperature > 3 °C the dew point (to avoid condensation)

153o Heat treatment
is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys. Tempering is usually performed after hardening, to reduce some of the excess hardness,

Annealing (stress relieving)
is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness,

===== PWHT- non-pressure vessel work is as follows:
ref 8o3 0206 PWHT Non coded.txt (from Peter Thomas)
1 Heat at a maximum rate of 200 °C per hour to 600 °C
2 Hold at 600 (± 20) °C for one hour for each 25mm of section thickness (minimum hold time 1 hour)
3 Cool at a maximum rate of 150 °C per hour to 300 °C
4 Unrestricted cooling from 300 °C to ambient temperature

153o SS grades
^ 8o3 BSSA Article/ Stainless Steel Grades Datasheets MU.pdf
Sandvik Tech centre;

ref 8o3 -Mf +PT Welding 304 vs 304L
153o Stainless Steel
Chlorine readily forms chlorides when in contact with gases such as methane, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) can also be formed by these reactions.
Chlorine dissolves readily in water forming hydrochloric and hypochlorous (HOCl) acids, which is very corrosive mixture.

Chlorine can also assist in the oxidation of dissolved gasses, such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), forming sulphuric and hydrochloric acid in water.
It is these oxidising properties that make chlorine an aggressive component in waters.

= Corrosion resistance of stainless steels
Chlorine in contact with water and as a dissolved gas, sometimes found in water treatment applications, is potentially aggressive to stainless steels.
Localised crevice & pitting corrosion attack is a hazard in water and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be an additional hazard in damp chlorine gas, if the temperature is high enough.
Condensates formed over chlorinated water in storage tanks have been known to result in staining or pitting to stainless steels. Improvements to ventilation in such situations should help reduce the risk of attack.

= Chlorine as a sterlizing or sanitising agent
When using chlorine as a sterilizer or sanitiser in contact with 316 type stainless steel items, a maximum of 15-20 ppm (mg/lt) 'free' chlorine is suggested, for maximum times of 24 hours, followed by a thorough chlorine free water flush.
As with any additions, thorough dilution around the injection point is important to avoid localised 'over-concentration' problems.

Residual chlorine levels in waters of 2ppm maximum for 304 and 5ppm for 316 types should not normally be considered a crevice corrosion hazard.

= Chlorine dioxide as a sanitiser in contact with stainless steels.
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2), occurs naturally as a gas, but is normally dissolved in water, as the gas is highly explosive.
Although a powerful oxidiser, unlike chlorine it does not breakdown to release chlorides. The chlorine and oxygen work together tending to form chlorites in the oxidation process. Although the chlorite can break down to form chlorides, it is a weaker oxidising agent than the chlorine dioxide and so can be expected to be less of a hazard to stainless steels when used as a water sanitiser.

Source data can be found at Outokumpu Corrosion Handbook - chlorine and chlorine dioxide.

===== Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number
The most common is PREN = 1 x %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N
The PRE ranges from 10.5 for the grades with the lowest corrosion resistance to more than 40.

===== Other

154o Corrosion (incl galvanic table)

= CORRODED END . (anodic, or least noble)
Magnesium, Magnesium alloys
Aluminium 2017
Steel or iron, Cast iron
Chromium-iron (active)
Ni-Resist irons
18-8 Chromium-nickel-iron (active), 18-8-3 Cr-Ni-Mo-Fe (active)
Lead-tin solders, Lead, Tin
Nickel (active), Inconel (active), Hastelloy C (active)
Brasses, Copper, Bronzes,Copper-nickel alloys, Monel
Silver Solder
Nickel (passive), Inconel (passive)
Chromium-iron (passive), Titanium, 18-8 Chromium-nickel-iron (passive), 18-8-3 Cr-Ni-Mo-Fe (passive). Hastelloy C (passive)
Graphite, Gold, Platinum
= PROTECTED END (cathodic, or more noble)

154o Elastomers/ Rubbers/ Plastics/ Resins/ FRP
=== NBR
Nitrile Butadiene Rubber; Buna-N, and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Trade names include Perbunan, Nipol, Krynac and Europrene

=== FKM
FKM; ASTM D1418, equivalent to FPM by ISO/DIN 1629 standard. DuPont (Viton)
Fluoroelastomers are more expensive than neoprene or nitrile rubber elastomers. They provide additional heat and chemical resistance

=== EPDM; Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer rubber
having a saturated chain of the polyethylene type

158o Timber
H1= The treatment level for low hazard situations where timber is not exposed to the weather. Its major use is for framing timber and interior linings. This is split into two categories.
H1.1= Timber used in situations protected from the weather, dry in service and where resistance to borer only is required.
H1.2= Timber used in situations protected from the weather but where there is a risk of moisture exposure conducive to decay.

H2= This level is similar to H1 but includes an insecticidal treatment to protect against termite attack for use in Australia.

H3= For moderate decay situations where timber is exposed to the weather but is not in contact with the ground. This is also split into two categories.
H3.1= Timber used outdoors above ground, exposed to the weather – generally in non-structural applications; i.e. fascia boards, weatherboards.
H3.2= Timber used outdoors above ground, exposed to weather or protected from the weather but with a risk of water entrapment; i.e. decking, fencing and pergolas.

H4= Used in high decay areas such as ground contact or fresh water. Generally used for fence posts and landscaping timbers.

H5= Used for severe decay hazard risks such as ground contact where conditions of severe or continuous wetting may occur. End uses for this hazard class are house piles and poles, retaining walls, crib walling and horticultural supports.

H6= This hazard class is for marine use. Wharf piles and fenders, marine and jetty components regularly immersed in seawater or estuarine ground.

Tanalised grades
180Rc Hazardous classifications
Hazardous Substances (Classification) Notice 2017

5. Classes of hazardous properties
. 1. The classes of hazardous properties are as follows:
class 1—explosiveness:
class 2—flammability, gases:
class 3—flammability, liquids:
class 4—flammability, solids:
class 5—capacity to oxidise:
class 6—toxicity:
class 8—corrosiveness:
class 9—ecotoxicity.
Class 7 is unallocated.
180Rw Water
Hard water

=== Indices
3.2.1 Langelier saturation index (LSI)
3.2.2 Ryznar Stability Index (RSI)
3.2.3 Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI)
3.2.4 Other indices

=== Treatments to reduce corrosion
^ 8F industry int - posttreatment of water by reverse osmosis.PDF
^ 8o2S Chem eng - new approach to Langelier stability index.pdf

181S Concrete
=== Joint design

Concreting resources
200T Pressure Vessels- ASME
ASME BPVC Section I - Rules for Construction of Power Boilers
ASME BPVC Section II - Materials

ASME BPVC Section IV - Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers
ASME BPVC Section V - Nondestructive Examination
ASME BPVC Section VI - Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
ASME BPVC Section VII - Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
ASME BPVC Section VIII - Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
• Division 1
• Division 2 - Alternative Rules
• Division 3 - Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels
ASME BPVC Section IX - Welding, Brazing, and Fusing Qualifications
ASME BPVC Section X - Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels

Code Sections
240X Contract questions
∆ Apx2 s240;

The World Material
   -, US