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Organisation Phone Street address City Email & WWW
1 Preparation
∆ "Apx0 Legends, Contents, etc; www.liztid.com/mylizt/271


Apx8 Reference Data
   BOP, NZ

http://www.dropbox.com/sh/7nov
90i Instruments
180821tnPN Wika
Typically PI should not operate continuously > 75% of full range.
Can handle occasional, short term overpressure of 30%

120L Piping Design
DN__= metric pipe sizes. (__NPS= imperial pipe sizes). ^ 8L6.0 Pipeline Supplies flip chart MU+.pdf

^ 8L6.0 Pipeline Supplies flip chart MU+
^ 8L6.2 Flange dimensions Tyco FCT_7_06 MU

=====
^ The Piping Guide
p21 In lines closures (spades and spectacle blinds, DBB)
p53 Drafting symbols

rp48 tP-1 Pipe dimensions and spans
rp54 cP-2 Personnel clearances (and access)
rp55 tS-1 Pipe spans
rp56 cS-2 Spans with rise or fall
rp76 tA1-M Arranging pipes in pipeways, fitting dimensions, etc


===== Lc Chemical piping
^ L~Iwaka Dairy chem bund MDM floor installation and L~Iwaka Dairy chem bund MXM wall installation



120Lπ Brackets
∆ Apx2 s120Lπ Brackets

125L Pipe stressing (spans)
ref 8Ls pipe spans.pdf

∆ s120 L above "The piping Guide"

=== Fonterra; FES p476 s100.8.2 Support centres
DN: . 15 __ 20 __ 25__ 32__ 40__ 50__ 65 __ 80__ 100_ 150__ 200 _ 250 _ 300 _ 350 _ 400 _ 450 and larger as approved by the Fonterra Engineer
s40: . 2.0 _ 2.0 _ 2.5 _ 2.5 _ 3.0 _ 3.5 _ 4.0 __ 4.5 __ 6.0 _ 6.0 _ 7.0 __ 8.0 __ 8.0 _ 9.0 _ 10.0
tube:. 2.0 _ 2.0 _ 2.5 _ 2.5 _ 2.5 _ 3.0 _ 3.0 __ 3.0 __ 3.5 _ 4.0 _ 4.0 __ 5.0 __ 5.0 _ 6.0 _ 7.0
PVC; 1.0 _ 1.0 _ 1.0 _ 1.0 _ 1.5 _ 1.5 _ 1.5 __ 2.0 __ 2.0 _ 2.5 _ 3.0 __ 3.0 __ 3.5 _
.

126.2L Connectors
∆ Allflow.co.nz
Camlock washers; Viton, Nitrile, EPDM


126.2L Pipe Threads
===== ^ 8L Swagelok MS-01-140-1996} Threads MU
- R= BSP tapered male or female... BS21, ISO 7/1, DIN 2999, JIS B0203
- G= BSP parallel male or female... BS 2779, ISO 228/1, DIN ISO 228/1, JIS 0202
- Std; Male= tapered, Female= parallel
# Parallel to parallel threads typically require sealing washers (they do not seal on the thread).
Thread Sealants: S ApxLa8S01 Pipe Spec.docx aL6.6

- ASME B1.20.1 Pipe Threads, General Purpose, Inch (NPT)

===== ^ 8L6.6 Eng Toolbox BSP ISO 7-1.pdf. ^ 8L6.6 Eng Toolbox NPT- ANSI B1.20.1.pdf

DN . . . 6 . . . . . 8 . . . . . 10 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 25
NPS . 1/8” . . . ¼” . . . . . 3/8” . . . ½” . . . . . ¾” . . . 1”
BSP; TPI (mm pitch)
. . 28 (0.91) . 19 (1.34) . 19 . . . 14 (1.81) . 14 . . 11 (2.31)
NPT; “
. . 27 (0.94) . 18 (1.41) . 18 . . . 14 (1.81) . 14 . . 11.5 (2.21)



150o Corrosion Orgs
∆ https://membership.corrosion.com.au
∆ https://www.nace.org/home
∆ https://www.bssa.org.uk

150o Corrosion in water systems
^ 8o EPA Corrosion Manual for Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems 10003FIW

154o Corrosion (incl galvanic table)
http://nem.org.uk/rust2.htm

= CORRODED END . (anodic, or least noble)
Magnesium, Magnesium alloys
Zinc
Cadmium
Aluminium 2017
Steel or iron, Cast iron
Chromium-iron (active)
Ni-Resist irons
18-8 Chromium-nickel-iron (active), 18-8-3 Cr-Ni-Mo-Fe (active)
Lead-tin solders, Lead, Tin
Nickel (active), Inconel (active), Hastelloy C (active)
Brasses, Copper, Bronzes,Copper-nickel alloys, Monel
Silver Solder
Nickel (passive), Inconel (passive)
Chromium-iron (passive), Titanium, 18-8 Chromium-nickel-iron (passive), 18-8-3 Cr-Ni-Mo-Fe (passive). Hastelloy C (passive)
Silver
Graphite, Gold, Platinum
= PROTECTED END (cathodic, or more noble)


154o Elastomers/ Rubbers/ Plastics/ Resins/ FRP
=== NBR
Nitrile Butadiene Rubber; Buna-N, and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Trade names include Perbunan, Nipol, Krynac and Europrene
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrile_rubber

=== FKM
FKM; ASTM D1418, equivalent to FPM by ISO/DIN 1629 standard. DuPont (Viton)
Fluoroelastomers are more expensive than neoprene or nitrile rubber elastomers. They provide additional heat and chemical resistance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FKM

=== EPDM; Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer rubber
having a saturated chain of the polyethylene type
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EPDM_rubber

154o Stainless Steel
∆ https://www.bssa.org.uk/topics.php?article=38
Chlorine readily forms chlorides when in contact with gases such as methane, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) can also be formed by these reactions.
Chlorine dissolves readily in water forming hydrochloric and hypochlorous (HOCl) acids, which is very corrosive mixture.

Chlorine can also assist in the oxidation of dissolved gasses, such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), forming sulphuric and hydrochloric acid in water.
It is these oxidising properties that make chlorine an aggressive component in waters.

= Corrosion resistance of stainless steels
Chlorine in contact with water and as a dissolved gas, sometimes found in water treatment applications, is potentially aggressive to stainless steels.
Localised crevice & pitting corrosion attack is a hazard in water and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be an additional hazard in damp chlorine gas, if the temperature is high enough.
Condensates formed over chlorinated water in storage tanks have been known to result in staining or pitting to stainless steels. Improvements to ventilation in such situations should help reduce the risk of attack.

= Chlorine as a sterlizing or sanitising agent
When using chlorine as a sterilizer or sanitiser in contact with 316 type stainless steel items, a maximum of 15-20 ppm (mg/lt) 'free' chlorine is suggested, for maximum times of 24 hours, followed by a thorough chlorine free water flush.
As with any additions, thorough dilution around the injection point is important to avoid localised 'over-concentration' problems.

Residual chlorine levels in waters of 2ppm maximum for 304 and 5ppm for 316 types should not normally be considered a crevice corrosion hazard.

= Chlorine dioxide as a sanitiser in contact with stainless steels.
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2), occurs naturally as a gas, but is normally dissolved in water, as the gas is highly explosive.
Although a powerful oxidiser, unlike chlorine it does not breakdown to release chlorides. The chlorine and oxygen work together tending to form chlorites in the oxidation process. Although the chlorite can break down to form chlorides, it is a weaker oxidising agent than the chlorine dioxide and so can be expected to be less of a hazard to stainless steels when used as a water sanitiser.

Source data can be found at Outokumpu Corrosion Handbook - chlorine and chlorine dioxide.


===== Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number
https://www.bssa.org.uk/topics.php?article=111
The most common is PREN = 1 x %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N
The PRE ranges from 10.5 for the grades with the lowest corrosion resistance to more than 40.


===== Other
http://nem.org.uk/rust2.htm


180Rw Water
Hard water
∆ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_water

=== Indices
∆ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_water#Indices
3.2.1 Langelier saturation index (LSI)
3.2.2 Ryznar Stability Index (RSI)
3.2.3 Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI)
3.2.4 Other indices

=== Treatments to reduce corrosion
^ 8F industry int - posttreatment of water by reverse osmosis.PDF
^ 8o2S Chem eng - new approach to Langelier stability index.pdf

240X Contract questions
∆ Apx2 s240; http://www.liztid.com/mylizt/270#lttheading16960